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43, , 20A–31A (1971). Ettre, L. , LC-GC 8, 716–724 (1990). Ettre, L. , J. Chromatogr. 112, 1–26 (1975). Ettre, L. , Pure Appl. Chem. 65, 819–872 (1993). See also, Ettre, L. , LC-GC 11, 502 (1993). 10. Dominguez, J. A. , and Diez-Masa, J. , Pure Appl. Chem. 73, 969–981 (2001). 11. , Chrompack International B. , Middleburg, the Netherlands, personal communication, 1996. 12. Berger, T. , Chromatographia 42, 63 (1996). CHAPTER 2 INSTRUMENT OVERVIEW Instrumentation in gas chromatography has continually evolved since the introduction of the first commercial systems in 1954.
SAMPLE INLETS AND SAMPLING DEVICES The sample inlet should handle a wide variety of samples including gases, liquids, and solids, and permit them to be rapidly and quantitatively introduced into the carrier gas stream. Different column types require different types of sample inlets as indicated in the following list: sample inlets Packed Column Capillary Column Flash vaporizer On-column Split Splitless On-column Ideally, the sample is injected instantaneously onto the column, but in practice this is impossible and a more realistic goal is to introduce it as a sharp symmetrical band.
A secondary purpose is to provide a suitable matrix for the detector to measure the sample components. Below are the carrier gases preferred for various detectors: carrier gases and detectors Detector Carrier Gas Thermal conductivity Flame ionization Electron capture Helium Helium or nitrogen Very dry nitrogen For the thermal conductivity detector, helium is the most popular. While hydrogen is commonly used in some parts of the world (where helium is very expensive), it is not recommended because of the potential for fire and explosions.