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Bone and Muscle: Structure, Force, and Motion (The Human by Kara Rogers

By Kara Rogers

The seeming simplicity of daily circulation can belie the complexity of the buildings that facilitate movement. greater than only a framework round which the physique develops, the human skeleton has advanced over the years to permit people to stroll and stand upright. muscle tissues likewise practice a number services, with out which the physique couldn't deal with. This entire booklet information the anatomy and mechanisms that permit bones and muscle groups to function clearly and examines the implications of affliction and damage on those basic elements of the human physique.

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Additional resources for Bone and Muscle: Structure, Force, and Motion (The Human Body)

Sample text

The pectoral girdle is not 31 7 Bone and Muscle 7 connected with the vertebral column by ligamentous attachments, nor is there any joint between it and any part of the axis of the body. The connection is by means of muscles only, including the trapezius, rhomboids, and levator scapulae, while the serratus anterior connects the scapula to the rib cage. The range of motion of the pectoral girdle, and in particular of the scapula, is enormously greater than that of the pelvic girdle. Another contrast, in terms of function, is seen in the shallowness of the glenoid fossa, as contrasted with the depth of the acetabulum.

Osteoblasts form a closely packed sheet on the surface of the bone, from which cellular processes extend through the developing bone. They arise from the differentiation of osteogenic cells in the periosteum, the tissue that covers the outer surface of the bone, and in the endosteum of the marrow cavity. This cell differentiation requires a regular supply of blood, without which cartilage-forming chondroblasts, rather than osteoblasts, are formed. The osteoblasts produce many cell products, including the enzymes alkaline phosphatase and collagenase, growth factors, hormones such as osteocalcin, and collagen, part of the organic unmineralized component of the bone called osteoid.

Muscles of the Upper Limb The human upper limb has retained an overall generalized structure, with its details adapted to upright existence. Among the primitive features that persist are the clavicle, or collarbone, which still functions as part of the shoulder; pronation and supination; and a full complement of five digits in the hand. Pronation and supination of the forearm, which allowthe palm of the hand to rotate 180 degrees, is not peculiar to humans. This movement depends upon the possession of both a small disk in the wrist joint and an arrangement of the muscles such that they can rotate the radius to and fro.

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